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Pinpoint, Not Criticize: Refining Large Language Models via Fine-Grained Actionable Feedback

2023-11-15 19:52:11
Wenda Xu, Daniel Deutsch, Mara Finkelstein, Juraj Juraska, Biao Zhang, Zhongtao Liu, William Yang Wang, Lei Li, Markus Freitag


Recent improvements in text generation have leveraged human feedback to improve the quality of the generated output. However, human feedback is not always available, especially during inference. In this work, we propose an inference time optimization method FITO to use fine-grained actionable feedback in the form of error type, error location and severity level that are predicted by a learned error pinpoint model for iterative refinement. FITO starts with an initial output, then iteratively incorporates the feedback via a refinement model that generates an improved output conditioned on the feedback. Given the uncertainty of consistent refined samples at iterative steps, we formulate iterative refinement into a local search problem and develop a simulated annealing based algorithm that balances exploration of the search space and optimization for output quality. We conduct experiments on three text generation tasks, including machine translation, long-form question answering (QA) and topical summarization. We observe 0.8 and 0.7 MetricX gain on Chinese-English and English-German translation, 4.5 and 1.8 ROUGE-L gain at long form QA and topic summarization respectively, with a single iteration of refinement. With our simulated annealing algorithm, we see further quality improvements, including up to 1.7 MetricX improvements over the baseline approach.

Abstract (translated)

近年来,在文本生成方面的改进主要利用了人类反馈来提高生成输出的质量。然而,在推理过程中,人类反馈并不总是可用的。在这项工作中,我们提出了一个推理时间优化方法FITO,用于使用由学习到的错误指针模型预测的错误类型、错误位置和严重程度类型的细粒度动作反馈,进行迭代精炼。FITO从初始输出开始,然后通过一个生成改进输出的精炼模型迭代整合反馈。由于在迭代步骤中存在不确定性的连续精炼样本,我们将迭代精炼转化为局部搜索问题,并开发了一种基于模拟退火算法的模拟退火优化算法,该算法在探索搜索空间和优化输出质量之间实现了平衡。我们在三个文本生成任务上进行实验,包括机器翻译、长篇问题回答(QA)和主题概述。我们观察到,在中文和英文翻译中,MetricX gain分别为0.8和0.7,而在长篇QA和主题概述中,ROUGE-L gain分别为4.5和1.8,每次精炼周期都有所改善。使用我们的模拟退火算法,我们看到了进一步的质量和性能改进,包括基线方法上的1.7个MetricX改进。



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