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How to Train your Antivirus: RL-based Hardening through the Problem-Space

2024-02-29 10:38:56
Jacopo Cortellazzi, Ilias Tsingenopoulos, Branislav Bo\v{s}ansk\'y, Simone Aonzo, Davy Preuveneers, Wouter Joosen, Fabio Pierazzi, Lorenzo Cavallaro


ML-based malware detection on dynamic analysis reports is vulnerable to both evasion and spurious correlations. In this work, we investigate a specific ML architecture employed in the pipeline of a widely-known commercial antivirus company, with the goal to harden it against adversarial malware. Adversarial training, the sole defensive technique that can confer empirical robustness, is not applicable out of the box in this domain, for the principal reason that gradient-based perturbations rarely map back to feasible problem-space programs. We introduce a novel Reinforcement Learning approach for constructing adversarial examples, a constituent part of adversarially training a model against evasion. Our approach comes with multiple advantages. It performs modifications that are feasible in the problem-space, and only those; thus it circumvents the inverse mapping problem. It also makes possible to provide theoretical guarantees on the robustness of the model against a particular set of adversarial capabilities. Our empirical exploration validates our theoretical insights, where we can consistently reach 0\% Attack Success Rate after a few adversarial retraining iterations.

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3D Action Action_Localization Action_Recognition Activity Adversarial Agent Attention Autonomous Bert Boundary_Detection Caption Chat Classification CNN Compressive_Sensing Contour Contrastive_Learning Deep_Learning Denoising Detection Dialog Diffusion Drone Dynamic_Memory_Network Edge_Detection Embedding Embodied Emotion Enhancement Face Face_Detection Face_Recognition Facial_Landmark Few-Shot Gait_Recognition GAN Gaze_Estimation Gesture Gradient_Descent Handwriting Human_Parsing Image_Caption Image_Classification Image_Compression Image_Enhancement Image_Generation Image_Matting Image_Retrieval Inference Inpainting Intelligent_Chip Knowledge Knowledge_Graph Language_Model Matching Medical Memory_Networks Multi_Modal Multi_Task NAS NMT Object_Detection Object_Tracking OCR Ontology Optical_Character Optical_Flow Optimization Person_Re-identification Point_Cloud Portrait_Generation Pose Pose_Estimation Prediction QA Quantitative Quantitative_Finance Quantization Re-identification Recognition Recommendation Reconstruction Regularization Reinforcement_Learning Relation Relation_Extraction Represenation Represenation_Learning Restoration Review RNN Salient Scene_Classification Scene_Generation Scene_Parsing Scene_Text Segmentation Self-Supervised Semantic_Instance_Segmentation Semantic_Segmentation Semi_Global Semi_Supervised Sence_graph Sentiment Sentiment_Classification Sketch SLAM Sparse Speech Speech_Recognition Style_Transfer Summarization Super_Resolution Surveillance Survey Text_Classification Text_Generation Tracking Transfer_Learning Transformer Unsupervised Video_Caption Video_Classification Video_Indexing Video_Prediction Video_Retrieval Visual_Relation VQA Weakly_Supervised Zero-Shot