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Quantum Earth Mover's Distance: A New Approach to Learning Quantum Data

2021-01-08 14:33:19
Bobak Toussi Kiani, Giacomo De Palma, Milad Marvian, Zi-Wen Liu, Seth Lloyd


tract: Quantifying how far the output of a learning algorithm is from its target is an essential task in machine learning. However, in quantum settings, the loss landscapes of commonly used distance metrics often produce undesirable outcomes such as poor local minima and exponentially decaying gradients. As a new approach, we consider here the quantum earth mover's (EM) or Wasserstein-1 distance, recently proposed in [De Palma et al., arXiv:2009.04469] as a quantum analog to the classical EM distance. We show that the quantum EM distance possesses unique properties, not found in other commonly used quantum distance metrics, that make quantum learning more stable and efficient. We propose a quantum Wasserstein generative adversarial network (qWGAN) which takes advantage of the quantum EM distance and provides an efficient means of performing learning on quantum data. Our qWGAN requires resources polynomial in the number of qubits, and our numerical experiments demonstrate that it is capable of learning a diverse set of quantum data.

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