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Multimodal Engagement Analysis from Facial Videos in the Classroom

2021-01-11 22:15:04
Ömer Sümer, Patricia Goldberg, Sidney D'Mello, Peter Gerjets, Ulrich Trautwein, Enkelejda Kasneci


tract: Student engagement is a key construct for learning and teaching. While most of the literature explored the student engagement analysis on computer-based settings, this paper extends that focus to classroom instruction. To best examine student visual engagement in the classroom, we conducted a study utilizing the audiovisual recordings of classes at a secondary school over one and a half month's time, acquired continuous engagement labeling per student (N=15) in repeated sessions, and explored computer vision methods to classify engagement levels from faces in the classroom. We trained deep embeddings for attentional and emotional features, training Attention-Net for head pose estimation and Affect-Net for facial expression recognition. We additionally trained different engagement classifiers, consisting of Support Vector Machines, Random Forest, Multilayer Perceptron, and Long Short-Term Memory, for both features. The best performing engagement classifiers achieved AUCs of .620 and .720 in Grades 8 and 12, respectively. We further investigated fusion strategies and found score-level fusion either improves the engagement classifiers or is on par with the best performing modality. We also investigated the effect of personalization and found that using only 60-seconds of person-specific data selected by margin uncertainty of the base classifier yielded an average AUC improvement of .084.

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