tract: In this paper, we propose the reproducing activation function to improve deep learning accuracy for various applications ranging from computer vision problems to scientific computing problems. The idea of reproducing activation functions is to employ several basic functions and their learnable linear combination to construct neuron-wise data-driven activation functions for each neuron. Armed with such activation functions, deep neural networks can reproduce traditional approximation tools and, therefore, approximate target functions with a smaller number of parameters than traditional neural networks. In terms of training dynamics of deep learning, reproducing activation functions can generate neural tangent kernels with a better condition number than traditional activation functions lessening the spectral bias of deep learning. As demonstrated by extensive numerical tests, the proposed activation function can facilitate the convergence of deep learning optimization for a solution with higher accuracy than existing deep learning solvers for audio/image/video reconstruction, PDEs, and eigenvalue problems.