tract: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterized by atypical pneumonia has caused millions of deaths worldwide. Automatically segmenting lesions from chest Computed Tomography (CT) is a promising way to assist doctors in COVID-19 screening, treatment planning, and follow-up monitoring. However, voxel-wise annotations are extremely expert-demanding and scarce, especially when it comes to novel diseases, while an abundance of unlabeled data could be available. To tackle the challenge of limited annotations, in this paper, we propose an uncertainty-guided dual-consistency learning network (UDC-Net) for semi-supervised COVID-19 lesion segmentation from CT images. Specifically, we present a dual-consistency learning scheme that simultaneously imposes image transformation equivalence and feature perturbation invariance to effectively harness the knowledge from unlabeled data. We then quantify both the epistemic uncertainty and the aleatoric uncertainty and employ them together to guide the consistency regularization for more reliable unsupervised learning. Extensive experiments showed that our proposed UDC-Net improves the fully supervised method by 6.3% in Dice and outperforms other competitive semi-supervised approaches by significant margins, demonstrating high potential in real-world clinical practice.