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Contrastive Clustering: Toward Unsupervised Bias Reduction for Emotion and Sentiment Classification


Background: When neural network emotion and sentiment classifiers are used in public health informatics studies, biases present in the classifiers could produce inadvertently misleading results. Objective: This study assesses the impact of bias on COVID-19 topics, and demonstrates an automatic algorithm for reducing bias when applied to COVID-19 social media texts. This could help public health informatics studies produce more timely results during crises, with a reduced risk of misleading results. Methods: Emotion and sentiment classifiers were applied to COVID-19 data before and after debiasing the classifiers using unsupervised contrastive clustering. Contrastive clustering approximates the degree to which tokens exhibit a causal versus correlational relationship with emotion or sentiment, by contrasting the tokens' relative salience to topics versus emotions or sentiments. Results: Contrastive clustering distinguishes correlation from causation for tokens with an F1 score of 0.753. Masking bias prone tokens from the classifier input decreases the classifier's overall F1 score by 0.02 (anger) and 0.033 (negative sentiment), but improves the F1 score for sentences annotated as bias prone by 0.155 (anger) and 0.103 (negative sentiment). Averaging across topics, debiasing reduces anger estimates by 14.4% and negative sentiment estimates by 8.0%. Conclusions: Contrastive clustering reduces algorithmic bias in emotion and sentiment classification for social media text pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health informatics studies should account for bias, due to its prevalence across a range of topics. Further research is needed to improve bias reduction techniques and to explore the adverse impact of bias on public health informatics analyses.

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3D Action Action_Localization Action_Recognition Activity Adversarial Attention Autonomous Bert Boundary_Detection Caption Classification CNN Compressive_Sensing Contour Contrastive_Learning Deep_Learning Denoising Detection Drone Dynamic_Memory_Network Edge_Detection Embedding Emotion Enhancement Face Face_Detection Face_Recognition Facial_Landmark Few-Shot Gait_Recognition GAN Gaze_Estimation Gesture Gradient_Descent Handwriting Human_Parsing Image_Caption Image_Classification Image_Compression Image_Enhancement Image_Generation Image_Matting Image_Retrieval Inference Inpainting Intelligent_Chip Knowledge Knowledge_Graph Language_Model Matching Medical Memory_Networks Multi_Modal Multi_Task NAS NMT Object_Detection Object_Tracking OCR Ontology Optical_Character Optical_Flow Optimization Person_Re-identification Point_Cloud Portrait_Generation Pose Pose_Estimation Prediction QA Quantitative Quantitative_Finance Quantization Re-identification Recognition Recommendation Reconstruction Regularization Reinforcement_Learning Relation Relation_Extraction Represenation Represenation_Learning Restoration Review RNN Salient Scene_Classification Scene_Generation Scene_Parsing Scene_Text Segmentation Self-Supervised Semantic_Instance_Segmentation Semantic_Segmentation Semi_Global Semi_Supervised Sence_graph Sentiment Sentiment_Classification Sketch SLAM Sparse Speech Speech_Recognition Style_Transfer Summarization Super_Resolution Surveillance Survey Text_Classification Text_Generation Tracking Transfer_Learning Transformer Unsupervised Video_Caption Video_Classification Video_Indexing Video_Prediction Video_Retrieval Visual_Relation VQA Weakly_Supervised Zero-Shot