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Improving embedding of graphs with missing data by soft manifolds

2023-11-29 12:48:33
Andrea Marinoni, Pietro Lio', Alessandro Barp, Christian Jutten, Mark Girolami


Embedding graphs in continous spaces is a key factor in designing and developing algorithms for automatic information extraction to be applied in diverse tasks (e.g., learning, inferring, predicting). The reliability of graph embeddings directly depends on how much the geometry of the continuous space matches the graph structure. Manifolds are mathematical structure that can enable to incorporate in their topological spaces the graph characteristics, and in particular nodes distances. State-of-the-art of manifold-based graph embedding algorithms take advantage of the assumption that the projection on a tangential space of each point in the manifold (corresponding to a node in the graph) would locally resemble a Euclidean space. Although this condition helps in achieving efficient analytical solutions to the embedding problem, it does not represent an adequate set-up to work with modern real life graphs, that are characterized by weighted connections across nodes often computed over sparse datasets with missing records. In this work, we introduce a new class of manifold, named soft manifold, that can solve this situation. In particular, soft manifolds are mathematical structures with spherical symmetry where the tangent spaces to each point are hypocycloids whose shape is defined according to the velocity of information propagation across the data points. Using soft manifolds for graph embedding, we can provide continuous spaces to pursue any task in data analysis over complex datasets. Experimental results on reconstruction tasks on synthetic and real datasets show how the proposed approach enable more accurate and reliable characterization of graphs in continuous spaces with respect to the state-of-the-art.

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