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Uncertainty Estimation and Out-of-Distribution Detection for Deep Learning-Based Image Reconstruction using the Local Lipschitz

2023-12-01 16:00:14
Danyal F. Bhutto, Bo Zhu, Jeremiah Z. Liu, Neha Koonjoo, Hongwei B. Li, Bruce R. Rosen, Matthew S. Rosen


Accurate image reconstruction is at the heart of diagnostics in medical imaging. Supervised deep learning-based approaches have been investigated for solving inverse problems including image reconstruction. However, these trained models encounter unseen data distributions that are widely shifted from training data during deployment. Therefore, it is essential to assess whether a given input falls within the training data distribution for diagnostic purposes. Uncertainty estimation approaches exist but focus on providing an uncertainty map to radiologists, rather than assessing the training distribution fit. In this work, we propose a method based on the local Lipschitz-based metric to distinguish out-of-distribution images from in-distribution with an area under the curve of 99.94%. Empirically, we demonstrate a very strong relationship between the local Lipschitz value and mean absolute error (MAE), supported by a high Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.8475, which determines the uncertainty estimation threshold for optimal model performance. Through the identification of false positives, the local Lipschitz and MAE relationship was used to guide data augmentation and reduce model uncertainty. Our study was validated using the AUTOMAP architecture for sensor-to-image Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction. We compare our proposed approach with baseline methods: Monte-Carlo dropout and deep ensembles, and further analysis included MRI denoising and Computed Tomography (CT) sparse-to-full view reconstruction using UNET architectures. We show that our approach is applicable to various architectures and learned functions, especially in the realm of medical image reconstruction, where preserving the diagnostic accuracy of reconstructed images remains paramount.

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