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On the Out-Of-Distribution Robustness of Self-Supervised Representation Learning for Phonocardiogram Signals

2023-12-01 11:06:00
Aristotelis Ballas, Vasileios Papapanagiotou, Christos Diou


Objective: Despite the recent increase in research activity, deep-learning models have not yet been widely accepted in medicine. The shortage of high-quality annotated data often hinders the development of robust and generalizable models, which do not suffer from degraded effectiveness when presented with newly-collected, out-of-distribution (OOD) datasets. Methods: Contrastive Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) offers a potential solution to the scarcity of labeled data as it takes advantage of unlabeled data to increase model effectiveness and robustness. In this research, we propose applying contrastive SSL for detecting abnormalities in phonocardiogram (PCG) samples by learning a generalized representation of the signal. Specifically, we perform an extensive comparative evaluation of a wide range of audio-based augmentations and evaluate trained classifiers on multiple datasets across different downstream tasks. Results: We experimentally demonstrate that, depending on its training distribution, the effectiveness of a fully-supervised model can degrade up to 32% when evaluated on unseen data, while SSL models only lose up to 10% or even improve in some cases. Conclusions: Contrastive SSL pretraining can assist in providing robust classifiers which can generalize to unseen, OOD data, without relying on time- and labor-intensive annotation processes by medical experts. Furthermore, the proposed extensive evaluation protocol sheds light on the most promising and appropriate augmentations for robust PCG signal processing. Significance: We provide researchers and practitioners with a roadmap towards producing robust models for PCG classification, in addition to an open-source codebase for developing novel approaches.

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3D Action Action_Localization Action_Recognition Activity Adversarial Agent Attention Autonomous Bert Boundary_Detection Caption Chat Classification CNN Compressive_Sensing Contour Contrastive_Learning Deep_Learning Denoising Detection Dialog Diffusion Drone Dynamic_Memory_Network Edge_Detection Embedding Embodied Emotion Enhancement Face Face_Detection Face_Recognition Facial_Landmark Few-Shot Gait_Recognition GAN Gaze_Estimation Gesture Gradient_Descent Handwriting Human_Parsing Image_Caption Image_Classification Image_Compression Image_Enhancement Image_Generation Image_Matting Image_Retrieval Inference Inpainting Intelligent_Chip Knowledge Knowledge_Graph Language_Model Matching Medical Memory_Networks Multi_Modal Multi_Task NAS NMT Object_Detection Object_Tracking OCR Ontology Optical_Character Optical_Flow Optimization Person_Re-identification Point_Cloud Portrait_Generation Pose Pose_Estimation Prediction QA Quantitative Quantitative_Finance Quantization Re-identification Recognition Recommendation Reconstruction Regularization Reinforcement_Learning Relation Relation_Extraction Represenation Represenation_Learning Restoration Review RNN Salient Scene_Classification Scene_Generation Scene_Parsing Scene_Text Segmentation Self-Supervised Semantic_Instance_Segmentation Semantic_Segmentation Semi_Global Semi_Supervised Sence_graph Sentiment Sentiment_Classification Sketch SLAM Sparse Speech Speech_Recognition Style_Transfer Summarization Super_Resolution Surveillance Survey Text_Classification Text_Generation Tracking Transfer_Learning Transformer Unsupervised Video_Caption Video_Classification Video_Indexing Video_Prediction Video_Retrieval Visual_Relation VQA Weakly_Supervised Zero-Shot