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Vulnerability of Appearance-based Gaze Estimation

2021-03-24 12:19:59
Mingjie Xu, Haofei Wang, Yunfei Liu, Feng Lu


Appearance-based gaze estimation has achieved significant improvement by using deep learning. However, many deep learning-based methods suffer from the vulnerability property, i.e., perturbing the raw image using noise confuses the gaze estimation models. Although the perturbed image visually looks similar to the original image, the gaze estimation models output the wrong gaze direction. In this paper, we investigate the vulnerability of appearance-based gaze estimation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the vulnerability of gaze estimation to be found. We systematically characterized the vulnerability property from multiple aspects, the pixel-based adversarial attack, the patch-based adversarial attack and the defense strategy. Our experimental results demonstrate that the CA-Net shows superior performance against attack among the four popular appearance-based gaze estimation networks, Full-Face, Gaze-Net, CA-Net and RT-GENE. This study draws the attention of researchers in the appearance-based gaze estimation community to defense from adversarial attacks.

Abstract (translated)



3D Action Action_Localization Action_Recognition Activity Adversarial Attention Autonomous Bert Boundary_Detection Caption Classification CNN Compressive_Sensing Contour Contrastive_Learning Deep_Learning Denoising Detection Drone Dynamic_Memory_Network Edge_Detection Embedding Emotion Enhancement Face Face_Detection Face_Recognition Facial_Landmark Few-Shot Gait_Recognition GAN Gaze_Estimation Gesture Gradient_Descent Handwriting Human_Parsing Image_Caption Image_Classification Image_Compression Image_Enhancement Image_Generation Image_Matting Image_Retrieval Inference Inpainting Intelligent_Chip Knowledge Knowledge_Graph Language_Model Matching Medical Memory_Networks Multi_Modal Multi_Task NAS NMT Object_Detection Object_Tracking OCR Ontology Optical_Character Optical_Flow Optimization Person_Re-identification Point_Cloud Portrait_Generation Pose Pose_Estimation Prediction QA Quantitative Quantitative_Finance Quantization Re-identification Recognition Recommendation Reconstruction Regularization Reinforcement_Learning Relation Relation_Extraction Represenation Represenation_Learning Restoration Review RNN Salient Scene_Classification Scene_Generation Scene_Parsing Scene_Text Segmentation Self-Supervised Semantic_Instance_Segmentation Semantic_Segmentation Semi_Global Semi_Supervised Sence_graph Sentiment Sentiment_Classification Sketch SLAM Sparse Speech Speech_Recognition Style_Transfer Summarization Super_Resolution Surveillance Survey Text_Classification Text_Generation Tracking Transfer_Learning Transformer Unsupervised Video_Caption Video_Classification Video_Indexing Video_Prediction Video_Retrieval Visual_Relation VQA Weakly_Supervised Zero-Shot