Paper Reading AI Learner

Appearance-based Gaze Estimation With Deep Learning: A Review and Benchmark

2021-04-26 15:53:03
Yihua Cheng, Haofei Wang, Yiwei Bao, Feng Lu


Gaze estimation reveals where a person is looking. It is an important clue for understanding human intention. The recent development of deep learning has revolutionized many computer vision tasks, the appearance-based gaze estimation is no exception. However, it lacks a guideline for designing deep learning algorithms for gaze estimation tasks. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the appearance-based gaze estimation methods with deep learning. We summarize the processing pipeline and discuss these methods from four perspectives: deep feature extraction, deep neural network architecture design, personal calibration as well as device and platform. Since the data pre-processing and post-processing methods are crucial for gaze estimation, we also survey face/eye detection method, data rectification method, 2D/3D gaze conversion method, and gaze origin conversion method. To fairly compare the performance of various gaze estimation approaches, we characterize all the publicly available gaze estimation datasets and collect the code of typical gaze estimation algorithms. We implement these codes and set up a benchmark of converting the results of different methods into the same evaluation metrics. This paper not only serves as a reference to develop deep learning-based gaze estimation methods but also a guideline for future gaze estimation research. Implemented methods and data processing codes are available at this http URL.

Abstract (translated)



3D Action Action_Localization Action_Recognition Activity Adversarial Attention Autonomous Bert Boundary_Detection Caption Classification CNN Compressive_Sensing Contour Contrastive_Learning Deep_Learning Denoising Detection Drone Dynamic_Memory_Network Edge_Detection Embedding Emotion Enhancement Face Face_Detection Face_Recognition Facial_Landmark Few-Shot Gait_Recognition GAN Gaze_Estimation Gesture Gradient_Descent Handwriting Human_Parsing Image_Caption Image_Classification Image_Compression Image_Enhancement Image_Generation Image_Matting Image_Retrieval Inference Inpainting Intelligent_Chip Knowledge Knowledge_Graph Language_Model Matching Medical Memory_Networks Multi_Modal Multi_Task NAS NMT Object_Detection Object_Tracking OCR Ontology Optical_Character Optical_Flow Optimization Person_Re-identification Point_Cloud Portrait_Generation Pose Pose_Estimation Prediction QA Quantitative Quantitative_Finance Quantization Re-identification Recognition Recommendation Reconstruction Regularization Reinforcement_Learning Relation Relation_Extraction Represenation Represenation_Learning Restoration Review RNN Salient Scene_Classification Scene_Generation Scene_Parsing Scene_Text Segmentation Self-Supervised Semantic_Instance_Segmentation Semantic_Segmentation Semi_Global Semi_Supervised Sence_graph Sentiment Sentiment_Classification Sketch SLAM Sparse Speech Speech_Recognition Style_Transfer Summarization Super_Resolution Surveillance Survey Text_Classification Text_Generation Tracking Transfer_Learning Transformer Unsupervised Video_Caption Video_Classification Video_Indexing Video_Prediction Video_Retrieval Visual_Relation VQA Weakly_Supervised Zero-Shot