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Goldilocks: Just-Right Tuning of BERT for Technology-Assisted Review

2021-05-03 17:41:18
Eugene Yang, Sean MacAvaney, David D. Lewis, Ophir Frieder


tract: Technology-assisted review (TAR) refers to iterative active learning workflows for document review in high recall retrieval (HRR) tasks. TAR research and most commercial TAR software have applied linear models such as logistic regression or support vector machines to lexical features. Transformer-based models with supervised tuning have been found to improve effectiveness on many text classification tasks, suggesting their use in TAR. We indeed find that the pre-trained BERT model reduces review volume by 30% in TAR workflows simulated on the RCV1-v2 newswire collection. In contrast, we find that linear models outperform BERT for simulated legal discovery topics on the Jeb Bush e-mail collection. This suggests the match between transformer pre-training corpora and the task domain is more important than generally appreciated. Additionally, we show that just-right language model fine-tuning on the task collection before starting active learning is critical. Both too little or too much fine-tuning results in performance worse than that of linear models, even for RCV1-v2.

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3D Action Action_Localization Action_Recognition Activity Adversarial Attention Autonomous Bert Boundary_Detection Caption Classification CNN Compressive_Sensing Contour Contrastive_Learning Deep_Learning Denoising Detection Drone Dynamic_Memory_Network Edge_Detection Embedding Emotion Enhancement Face Face_Detection Face_Recognition Facial_Landmark Few-Shot Gait_Recognition GAN Gaze_Estimation Gesture Gradient_Descent Handwriting Human_Parsing Image_Caption Image_Classification Image_Compression Image_Enhancement Image_Generation Image_Matting Image_Retrieval Inference Inpainting Intelligent_Chip Knowledge Knowledge_Graph Language_Model Matching Medical Memory_Networks Multi_Modal Multi_Task NAS NMT Object_Detection Object_Tracking OCR Ontology Optical_Character Optical_Flow Optimization Person_Re-identification Point_Cloud Portrait_Generation Pose Pose_Estimation Prediction QA Quantitative Quantitative_Finance Quantization Re-identification Recognition Recommendation Reconstruction Regularization Reinforcement_Learning Relation Relation_Extraction Represenation Represenation_Learning Restoration Review RNN Salient Scene_Classification Scene_Generation Scene_Parsing Scene_Text Segmentation Self-Supervised Semantic_Instance_Segmentation Semantic_Segmentation Semi_Global Semi_Supervised Sence_graph Sentiment Sentiment_Classification Sketch SLAM Sparse Speech Speech_Recognition Style_Transfer Summarization Super_Resolution Surveillance Survey Text_Classification Text_Generation Tracking Transfer_Learning Transformer Unsupervised Video_Caption Video_Classification Video_Indexing Video_Prediction Video_Retrieval Visual_Relation VQA Weakly_Supervised Zero-Shot